Liquid pendulum inclinometer for rapid, accurate and reproducible measurements can be operated with one hand Can be used to measure any part of the body.~~- Liquid pendulum inclinometer for rapid, accurate and reproducible measurements
- can be operated with one hand
- (see accompanying sheets)
Measurement of scapula upward rotation: a reliable clinical procedureL Watson1, S M Balster1, C Finch2 and R Dalziel3
1 LifeCare, Prahran Sports Medicine Centre, Prahran, Victoria, Australia
2 NSW Injury Risk Management Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
3 Melbourne Orthopaedic Group, Windsor, Victoria, Australia
Background: It is important to deal with the scapula when developing rehabilitation strategies for the shoulder complex. This requires clinical measurement tools that are readily available and easy to apply and which provide a reliable evaluation of scapula motion.
Aim: To determine the reliability of the Plurimeter-V gravity inclinometer for the measurement of scapular upward rotation positions during humeral elevation in coronal abduction in a group of patients with shoulder pathology.
Method: Twenty six patients were assessed in two repeat tests within a single testing session. Patients exhibiting a wide spectrum of shoulder pathology were selected. The angle of scapular upward rotation was measured during total shoulder abduction. The measurement protocol was performed twice during a single testing session by a single tester. Results of the two tests were compared and the reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
Results: There was no significant difference in the scapula measurements taken during the two tests at each testing position. Overall, there was very good intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.88). The ICC ranged from 0.81 (at 135°) to 0.94 (at both resting and end of total shoulder abduction range).
Conclusion: The Plurimeter-V gravity inclinometer can be used effectively and reliably for measuring upward rotation of the scapula in all ranges of shoulder abduction in the coronal plane.REFERENCES
Extract No. 1 Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. Third Edition - 2nd Printing February,1989. American Medical Association. Forward to third edition. The evaluation of the spine uses inclinometers, rather than goniometers, for the measurement of range of motion, a technique that provides more accurate,reproducible results.
Extract No. 2 Porter, RW et al (1990) Spine Vol 15 (2): 103-106 (We) first established an acceptable intra-observer repeatability using an oil-filled precison goniometer. The intra-observer repeatability of straight leg raising for 60 paired measurements from six patients was 1.6 degrees, SD 1.4 degrees.
Extract No. 3 Mayer, T.G. et al (1984) Spine 9 (6): 588-595. In this paper, the authors present a simple, single inclinometer (technique).... which offers the opportunity to separate the components of the compound motion of hip and spine. Analysis of the motion of normal and chronic low-back pain patients allow differentiation of the groups, demonstration of progress of rehabilitation programs, determination of impairment, and provides tests of patient compliance and level of motivation... Both normal subjects and patient groups were studied....inclinometer measurements (of patients) at the time of radiographic flexion-extension films showed a mean lumbar motion of 60.5 degrees (S.D, 16.7 degrees). The motion measured on flexion-extension X-rays showed a mean range of motion of 58.5 degrees... We should note the accuracy of the method in comparison to ...radiographs. Several types of inclinometers were used, including a Plurimeter.
Extract No.4 Ward, RS & Marcus R (1994) The effect of repetitive spinal motion on range of motion masurements of lumbar flexion and extension: A pilot sudy. American Physical therapists Association National Conference, Toronto. Six females and four males... took part in this study. Measurements of lumbar flexion (Flex) and extension (Ext) ROM were taken at two separate times by one physical therapist... means for Flex test A & B did not differ (26.8 degrees and 26.5 degrees respectively), and neither did the means for Ext (52.0 and 53.6 degrees respectively)... The ICC for Flex was 0.89 and ICC for Ext was 0.95... Note this study used the Dualer inclinometer in dual mode, ie both inclinometers were linked together.
Extract No. 5 Mayer, TG et al (1984) Spine Vol 9 (6):588-595 In this paper, the authors present a simple, single inclinometer (technique)... which offers the opportunity to separate the components of the compound motion of hip and spine. Analysis of the moion of normal and chronic low-back pain patients allow differentiation of the groups, demonstration of progress of rehabilitation programs, determination of impairment, and provides test of patient compliance and level of motivation... both normal subjects and patient groups were studied.. inclinometer measurements (of patients) at the time of radiographic flexion-extension films showed a mean lumbar motion of 60.5 degrees (SD 16.7 degrees). The motion measured on flexion-extension X-rays showed a mean range of motion of 58.5 degrees... We should note the accuracy of the method in comparison to... radiographs.Note they used several types of inclinometers, including a Plurimeter.
Extract No.6 (This extract highlights the inaccuracy of eyeballing) Chesworth, B.M et al (1991) Physiotherapy Canada 43 (4): 13-18 Ten physiotherapists with experience in manual therapy volunteered to evaluate a fractured ankle patient for passive stiffness into DF (Dorsiflexion) and document their findings..(They had an average of over 12 years clinical experience and over 8 years manual therapy experience)...The clinicians were initially asked to estimate the limit of the available ROM (range of motion) in degrees... Only 8 therapists complied, with values ranging from 2 degrees of PF (plantarflexion) to 15 degrees of DF (...S.D:5.9 degrees DF)...(thus) there was considerable variability in the therapists estimation of...the end ROM (...the real limit of DF was 10 degrees).
Extract No. 7 Porter, RW et al (1990) Foot & Ankle 11 (1):16-21 Assessment in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus. We have examined the intra-and interobserver repeatability of several measurements of the original deformity and correction in children with congenital talipes equinovarus deformity. A neonatal photograph and a preoperative soft tissue radiograph had acceptable repeatability as a method of early assessment. The post-operative range of movement measured by goniometer (Plurimeter inclinometer) was adequate for one examiner, (mean:2-6 deg), but poor between examiners (mean:5-14 deg) Postoperative radiographic measurement between observers was more repeatable than the range of movement..The combined talocalcaneal angle had good repeatability in young children... With an oil filled goniometer (Plurimeter).. we found that ankle...movements were very repeatable for one examiner...Differences between examiners however were disappointing, being related to the degree of force which the examiner was prepared to apply to the foot. The improved intraobserver results in older children reflect their better cooperation. It should be noted that the children tested ranged inage from 4 to 16 years of age, so some may certainly not have been cooperative!. No foot attachment plates were used and thus I feel that reliability could have been improved uponSPECIFIC APPLICATIONS FOR PODIATRY The PLURIMETER as can measure the ROM of many joints in the lower limbs, the following are some examples: a) Pure Lumbar spine flexion and extension, and lateral flexion. b) Hip flexion extension(including passive straight leg raising). c) Hip Abduction adduction in standing or side-lying. d) Hip rotation (with hip in neutral or flexed). e) Knee flexion extension. f) Q angles. g) Weight bearing plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. h) Weight bearing calcaneal varus or valgus relaxed stance position, With additional attachments, (which cost extra) it can also measure i) Non-weight bearing plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. j) Non-weight bearing inversion and eversion. k) Forefoot supination and pronation (also called forefoot varus and valgus). l) Lower limb symmetry such as tibial and femoral leg length differences.
Extra information can be found in the attached sheets. Please ring if you need more informationDocumentation of Joint Motion: an instruction manual
The book "Documentation of Joint Motion" by Orthopaedic surgeon Dr JJ Gerhardt, has over 140 pages and hundreds of pictures & line drawings.
The book describes how to use various types of inclinometers on all the different joints of the body, ensuring that your Plurimeter will be used uniformly by your staff.
Save time & space in recording your clinical assessment: learn how to document your range of motion findings using a method that was devised over 30 years ago. It is called the Neutral-Zero SFTR method, and is used in most European countries, and is mandatory in Workers Compensations of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The Austrian Army, and hospitals in the USA are also using the method.
The method is being taught by many institutions, including the Washington State Spinal Health Unit, the Western States College of Chiropractic in Portland, the Life College of Chiropractic in California, and by the Disability Evaluating Academy of Physicians in the USA.
The chart in our catalogue illustrates the method's conciseness, saving time and space in your clinical notes. It is an international method as language is not used but only numbers and letters.
The Neutral-Zero SFTR method will also ensure that there is no confusion between any staff that work for